Nootropics also referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, neuro enhancers, cognitive enhancers, and intelligence enhancers,
are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that purportedly improve mental functions such
as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration. Nootropics are thought to work by altering the
availability of the brain’s supply of neurochemicals (neurotransmitters, enzymes, and hormones), by improving the
brain’s oxygen supply, or by stimulating nerve growth. Drugs considered cognitive enhancers include dietary products and
supplements, racetams, stimulants, dopaminergics, cholinergics, GABA blockers, glutamate activators, serotonergics and hormones,
etc. however not all are healthy or safe to use but they can still have mental benefits. The safest types of cognitive enhancers constist
of herbal drugs and are available in supplement form, which mostly contain vitamins, fatty acids, antioxidants, amino acids, minerals,
etc and other herbal ingredients. Vitamins are involved in brain development and in adult brain function. Omega-3 influences both
communication between cells and cell function. Antioxidants help to retain the mental abilities longer, keep the brain younger and
protect it from oxidative damage. Amino acids help to produce the catecholamines and create alertness. Hormones increase
neurogenesis and improve both memory encoding and recall. Iron helps create hemoglobin, which transports oxygen to the brain.
Creatinine protects ATP during transport. Lipoic acid improves oxygen usage and antioxidant recycling, improving memory and
Germanium increases oxygen supply to the brain. Herbs and herbal products which have been found useful in improving cognitive
ability include Bacopa monniera, Ginkgo biloba, Siberian ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, Brahmi rasayana, , Lycoris radiata, Sutherlandia
frutescens, Mucuna pruriens, Butea frondosa, St John’s Wort, Arecholine, Royl Jelly, Caffeine, Curcumin and so on. The mechanism
of action is different for different drugs. These drugs are used primarily to treat people with cognitive difficulties as in Alzheimer’s
disease, Parkinson’s disease and Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).